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17-ketosteroids are substances that form when the body breaks down male steroid sex hormones called androgens and other hormones released by the adrenal glands in males and females and in the testes in males.
This article discusses the laboratory test used to measure the amount of 17-ketosteroids in a urine sample.
How the Test is Performed
A 24-hour urine sample is needed.
- On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you get up in the morning.
- Afterwards, collect all urine in a special container for the next 24 hours.
- On day 2, urinate into the container when you get up in the morning.
- Cap the container. Keep it in the refrigerator or a cool place during the collection period.
- Label the container with your name, the date, the time of completion, and return it as instructed.
For an infant, thoroughly wash the area around the urethra. Open a urine collection bag (a plastic bag with an adhesive paper on one end), and place it on the infant. For males, place the entire penis in the bag and attach the adhesive to the skin. For females, place the bag over the labia. Diaper as usual over the secured bag.
This procedure may take a couple of attempts -- lively infants can move the bag, causing the urine to be absorbed by the diaper. Check the infant frequently and change the bag after the infant has urinated into it. Drain the urine from the bag into the container provided by your health care provider.
Deliver it to the laboratory or your health care provider as soon as possible upon completion.
How to Prepare for the Test
Your health care provider will instruct you, if necessary, to discontinue drugs that may interfere with the test. Make sure your doctor knows about all the medicines you take, including those bought without a prescription.
Drugs that can increase 17-ketosteroids measurements include
Drugs that can decrease 17-ketosteroids measurements include:
- Birth control pills
- Salicylates (prolonged use)
- Thiazide diuretics
How the Test Will Feel
The test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.
Why the Test is Performed
Your doctor may order this test if you have signs of a disorder associated with abnormal levels of androgens.
Normal values are as follows:
- Male: 8 to 20 milligrams (mg) per 24 hours
- Female: 6 to 12 mg per 24 hr
The examples above are common measurements for results of these tests. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.
What Abnormal Results Mean
Increased levels of 17-ketosteroids may be due to:
- Adrenal tumor
- Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (very rare)
- Cushing syndrome
- Ovarian cancer
- Testicular cancer
- Polycystic ovarian disease
Decreased levels of 17-ketosteroids may be due to:
There are no risks.
This test is not done as often as it was in the past because newer tests are used instead.
Excessive weight (obesity) can also interfere with test results.
Nieman LK. Adrenal cortex. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 234.
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.