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Antifreeze is a liquid used to cool engines. It is also called engine coolant. This article discusses poisoning caused by swallowing antifreeze.
This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.
See also: Ethylene glycol poisoning
Engine coolant poisoning
- Ethylene glycol
- Propylene glycol
- Various antifreezes
Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.
- Airways and lungs
- Bladder and kidneys
- Eyes, ears, nose, and throat
- Blurred vision
- Heart and blood
- Change in body's acid-base balance, which can lead to organ failure
- Rapid heartbeat
- Low blood pressure
- Muscles and joints
- Nervous system
- Stomach and gastrointestinal tract
Seek immediate medical help. Do NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by poison control or a health care professional.
Use standard first aid and CPR for signs of shock or cardiac arrest. Call your local poison control center or 911 for further assistance.
Before Calling Emergency
Determine the following information:
- Patient's age, weight, and condition
- Name of product (as well as the ingredients and strength, if known)
- Time it was swallowed
- Amount swallowed
The National Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.
This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Take the container with you to the hospital, if possible.
What to Expect at the Emergency Room
The health care provider will measure and monitor the patient's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Blood and urine tests will be done.The patient may receive:
- Fluids through a vein (IV)
- Medicines to treat symptoms
- Medicine (antidote) to reverse the effect of the poison
- Tube through the nose into the stomach to wash out stomach (gastric lavage)
For ethylene glycol: Death may occur within the first 24 hours. If the patient survives, there may be little or no urine output for several weeks before the kidneys recover. Any brain damage may be permanent. Vision loss or blindness may also be permanent.
For methanol: Methanol is extremely toxic. As little as 2 tablespoons can kill a child, while 2 to 8 oz. can be deadly for an adult. The ultimate outcome depends on how much was swallowed and how soon appropriate care was given.
Ford M, Delaney KA, Ling L, Erickson T, eds. Clinical Toxicology. 1st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2001.
Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE, Lewin NA, et al, eds. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies. 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2006.
Reviewed By: Eric Perez, MD, Department of Emergency Medicine, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.